The oral cavity is a dynamic environment characterized by hundreds of bacterial species, saliva, and an influx of nutrients and metal ions. It offers diverse habitats where different species of microorganisms can prosper.
Oral infections are one of the most common pathologies in general population, mostly due to complications of infections associated with poor oral hygiene. Infections cause pain, swelling and inflammations. Many types of infections can affect the oral cavity.
The inflammation of the oral cavity is generally defined under the term of stomatitis, an inflammatory process acting on the mucous membranes of the mouth, that is gums tissue, palate, inner cheeks, lips and tongue. The condition, in acute or chronic form, can be delineated to specific areas of the mouth: if it hits the gums, for example, it causes a gingivitis; if it involves the tongue we will have a glossitis. As consequence of such inflammations, we could have secondary bacterial infections or even candidiasis.
The etiology and pathogenesis of stomatitis have not been well defined yet. This disease continues to be hardly treated, the same with its deriving secondary infections.
Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and healing properties of Propolis are able to improve ulcers cicatrizing process. Even the antibacterial activity can have a role as prevention from secondary infections, halitosis and hoarseness. Moreover, the important activity of defence against fungal infections helps to solve all the problems connected to secondary infections caused by Candida spp.