One of the most studied properties of propolis is its antioxidant capacity (Kurek-Gorecka et al., 2013). The main compounds responsible for this activity are polyphenols, which show higher radical scavenging activity than most common antioxidants, such as vitamin C and vitamin E (Banskota et al., 2000). Antioxidant activity is a very important topic since many syndromes are linked to an imbalance between the antioxidant defense system and the production of free radicals (Favier 1997).
As anti-inflammatory agent, propolis has been shown to inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandins, activate the thymus, help the immune system by promoting phagocytic activity, stimulate cellular immunity and improve curative effects in epithelial tissues (Casaroto et al., 2010).
Thanks the studies conducted at University of Pavia and published by Zaccaria, Curti et al. 2017, 2019 using standardized propolis M.E.D. extracts, it was possible to clarify in vitro the intracellular anti-inflammatory and antioxidant mechanisms, in vivo the antioxidant activity and the bioavailability, and in vitro the antibacterial activity.