Sore throat, or pharyngitis, is an inflammatory status of throat mucous membranes. It gives burning sensation, difficulty in swallowing and pain. It is, in general, a condition of mild and short duration, but in many cases it may not be isolated and it can be accompanied by an infection, viral or bacterial, an allergic reaction or a general cold. It may be therefore the symptom of another disease and require a visit to the doctor, in particular in cases in which the sore throat persists for more than 7 days.
Propolis is traditionally known as a natural solution to sore throat. There are many scientific studies documenting anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties of Propolis. The anti-inflammatory activity can be explained by the presence of some active flavonoids (galangin, quercetin, naringenin, etc.), cinnamic acid derivatives (caffeic acid,caffeic acid phenethyl ester CAPE) and Artepillin C in Brazilian Propolis. The antibacterial activity has been evaluated in many studies (> 700) and there are many substances included in Propolis that have this type of activity (Flavones, Flavonoids, Phenolic Acid).The spectrum of pathogens, which are inhibited by the presence of Propolis is very wide and both Gram positive and Gram negative.
Rhinitis is characterized by inflammation of the nasal mucosa due to infectious (viruses, bacteria), anatomical (excessive sensitivity and/or number of capillaries in the nasal mucosa) or irritant factors. The main symptom of rhinitis is rhinorrhoea, namely the nasal discharge (due to hyper secretion of mucus by the inflamed mucosa), which is accompanied by sneezing and a nagging feeling stuffy nose.
Otitis is an inflammatory process of acute or chronic type, related to ears and caused by pathogenic organisms of various types that can be localized in correspondence of ears both directly and indirectly. Depending on the part of the ear affected by the inflammation, otitis are distinguished: external, middle and inner (labyrinthitis).
It was studied the effect of Propolis on sneezing and irritation of the nasal mucosa in rhinitis and it was concluded that Propolis may be effective in relieving symptoms in particular through the inhibition of histamine. An inflammation induced in epithelial cells of medium ear can be inhibited by Propolis through the inhibition of the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha and COX - 2. Moreover, Propolis has antioxidant effects, which reduce the need of expression endogenous superoxide dismutase.
The inflammation of the oral cavity is generally defined under the term of stomatitis, an inflammatory process acting on the mucous membranes of the mouth, that is gums tissue, palate, inner cheeks, lips and tongue.
The condition, in acute or chronic form, can be delineated to specific areas of the mouth: if it hits the gums, for example, it causes a gingivitis; if it involves the tongue we will have a glossitis.
As consequence of such inflammations, we could have secondary bacterial infections or even candidiasis.
The etiology and pathogenesis of stomatitis have not been well defined yet. This disease continues to be hardly treated, the same with its deriving secondary infections.
Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and healing properties of Propolis are able to improve ulcers cicatrizing process. Even the antibacterial activity can have a role as prevention from secondary infections, halitosis and hoarseness.
Moreover, the important activity of defence against fungal infections helps to solve all the problems connected to secondary infections caused by Candida spp.
The human body is endowed with a complex system of defence protecting from external attacks of virus, bacteria and pathogens in general. We are talking about the immune system, formed by different organs and cells able to create a barrier against diseases. Immuno-stimulants are then substances mainly acting by a non-specific stimulation of the mechanisms of immune defence.
The immune-stimulant activity is one of the most studied. More than 1.000 studies have been conducted on different varieties and type of extracts.
Positive effects were verified on LPS and consequently a significant decrease in proinflammatory cytokines and on Leukocytes in the blood. Another scientific study has highlighted an improvement of the innate immunity by the activation of the regulation of the expression TLR-2 and TR-4 and of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1 and IL-6) increasing the production of macrophages from spleen, enhancing the identification of the microorganisms and activating the lymphocytes containing the antigen.
Genitourinary tract infections, caused by bacteria, protozoa and less frequently by fungus (Candida spp.) or virus, constitute one of the most frequent diseases in daily clinical practice. The incidence is different in both sexes and different ages. In particular, after infancy and up to 55 years they hit mainly the female sex (in particular cystitis), while by age 50 it results affected also the male sex mainly due to obstructive problems and the bladder emptying related to prostatic hypertrophy.
The activity of Purified Polyphenols from propolis M.E.D.® was investigated against a large panel of microbes species that affect genitourinary tract, particularly women's intimate area. The in- vitro studies have been performed against vaginal fungi that arise in case of lowering immune-system and contribute to vaginal dysbiosis such as C.albicans , C. parapsilosis , C. kruzei , C. guillermondi , or bacteria including Atopobium vaginae , Gardnerella vaginalis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae . The data obtained indicate a potential useful role of Purified Polyphenols from propolis M.E.D.® in vaginal infections treatment and suggest a more in- depth clinical evaluation.
The inactivity of Purified Polyphenols from propolis M.E.D.® against Lactobacilli spp., that constitute the shield of vaginal mucosae, suggests a interesting collaboration between Purified Polyphenols from propolis M.E.D.® and Lactobacilli spp. to improve vaginal immunity system.
The intestine is an important defence barrier for the body, the gastrointestinal tract (GI) gathers 2/3 of the overall immune system thanks to a complex microbiological ecosystem, comprising over 400 bacterial species. The most important effects of GI microflora is to protect the host from infections and pathogens development, promoting the establishment and the activity of immunological tissues. It is very important to maintain intestinal ecosystem or to restore the balance after an antibiotic therapy in order to prevent, for instance, the Helicobacter pylori infection.
Helicobacter pylori is the most important causative agent of chronic gastritis, also known as "nonspecific" and it is responsible for more than 90-95% of duodenal ulcers, too. The disease causing relationship between the ulcers and the infection is supported by studies, which have shown that by the eradication of the bacteria the signs of inflammation may be initially decreased and later disappeared.
The activity of Purified Polyphenols from propolis M.E.D.® was investigated against Lactobacilli spp. (L. plantarum, L. paracasei, L. gasseri, L. acidophilus) that is part of gastrointestinal normal flora. The in-vitro studies have shown no activity of Purified Polyphenols from propolis M.E.D.® towards these species, promising a good interaction between the two elements.
Many studies show that propolis possess gastric cytoprotective and hepatoprotective effects. The exact mechanism of Propolis effect on Helicobacter pylori is still not clear even analysing in vitro activity.
The liver is the main metabolic centre of the body, it carries out many essential functions or survival, it metabolizes drugs and alcohol so they can be eliminated by removing ammonia and nitrogenous waste and harmful substances to the liver itself, which hamper the regeneration of cells. Sometimes it can be useful to intervene to depurate it from toxins accumulated in such a way that its operation is not hindered.
Administration of Propolis could protect from liver damage, attenuate the increase of hepatic lipid peroxidase, of NOx content, acting on the activity of myeloperoxidase, and superoxide dismutase and promoting the hepatic metabolism of glutathione. These protective effects could be compared to those of vitamin E. These results indicate that Propolis may be useful to protect the liver against oxidative damages through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
Genitourinary tract infections, caused by bacteria and less frequently by fungus (Candida) or virus, constitute one of the most frequent diseases in daily clinical practice. The incidence is different in both sexes and different ages. In particular, after infancy and up to 55 years they hit mainly the female sex (in particular cystitis), while by age 50 it results affected also the male sex mainly due to obstructive problems and the bladder emptying related to prostatic hypertrophy.
Propolis can improve the anti-adhesion activity of proanthocyanidins (PACs) on uropathogenic Escherichia coli in the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections.
In vitro antimicrobial activity of Propolis has been evaluated against vaginal important microorganisms (Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The data obtained indicate a potentially useful role in the treatment of vaginal infections and suggest a more in-depth clinical evaluation.